Jordan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

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JJMIE Volume 14

Complete Journal

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Number 1 (Special Issue )
Number 2
Number 3
Number 4



Editorial Preface

Contents of Number 1

Optimization Design and Analysis of Rotary Indexing Mechanism of Tool Magazine in Machining Center

Jun Zhang, Shuli Sun, Hoang Anh Tuan

Online Monitoring and Early Warning Technology of Repeated Multiple Blackouts in Distribution Network Based on Multi-source Information Fusion and Delphi Method

Wensi Cao ,Mingming Xu , Rongze Niu , Qing Wu , Ruirui Xie

Contact Mechanics Analysis and Optimization of Shape Modification of Electric Vehicle Gearbox  

Qingyong Zhang, Yaru Wang, Weiping Lin, Yongjun Luo, Xingjian Wu  

Design of Digital Aerial Photography System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Based on Wireless Sensor Network

Rui Wang, Nian-chu Wu, Xin-li Yu

The Application of Closed Hydraulic System of Hoisting Mechanism in Auto Crane

Duwei Nie, Changxing Fu

Monitoring Algorithm for Speed Information of Autonomous Vehicles Based on Magnetoresistive Sensor

Yu Tang

An Adaptive Scheduling Method for Resources in Used Automobile Parts Recycling

Pengfei Ning

Intelligent Remote Monitoring System for Minor Faults of Intelligent Unmanned Vehicle

Jia Tao, Yuchen Jia, Yuan Gao

Review Study of Physical and Mechanical Characteristics on Mixed Soil with Scrap Tire Rubber Particles

Jianguang Bai, Yan Zhang, Shuzheng Wu

Design of Intelligent Obstacle Avoidance System for Fully Automated Unmanned Vehicle Based on Laser Ranging

Chunyuan Li

Distributed Multi-level Inventory Algorithms for Automotive Maintenance Spare Parts Based on Centralized Control Model

Jiangang Li

Design of Path Tracking Control System for UAV Based on Adaptive Preview Method

Yiping Li

Optimization of Clutchless AMT Shift Control Strategy for Electric Vehicles

Jingpu Li, Pengcheng Sheng, Kaikai Shao

Deep Drainage Detection System for Inland Vessels Based on Machine Vision

Hechuang Wang


Regional Coordination Control Method of Rail Transit Signal Based on Unmanned Driver

Yongcheng Wu, Changqiong Yang, Lanlan Huangfu

Unmanned Vehicle Route Tracking Method Based on Video Image Processing

Yiyi Zhu, Na Guo

Acceleration Sensor Abnormality Detection Method for Axle Box of Unmanned Vehicle

Jianhu Gong

Driving Pattern Recognition of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Multi-hierarchical Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation

Qingyong Zhang, Zhenfei Lu, Yaru Wang, Weiping Lin

Vibration Fatigue Analysis and Optimization Design of a Light-truck Urea Box Bracket

Zhenqi Yu, Huifang Jia , Xingyuan Huang

Application of Improved Particle Swarm Optimization in Gear Fault Diagnosis of Automobile Transmission

Aibing Wang, Jianwei Liang, Yapeng Liu






 Contents of Number 2

Simulation and Performance Evaluation of CO2 Booster System Integrated with Modified Evaporative Cooling for Supermarket Application in India

Manju Lata, Rishabh Yadav, Dileep Kumar Gupta.


Abstract: CO2 is one of the rediscovered, ecologically safe refrigerants with very low global warming potential which has favorable thermo-physical properties. The CO2 booster refrigeration system has already been identified as a suitable choice for the supermarket application to replace the conventional R404A (high GWP) system. However, the performance of the CO2 booster system is still comparatively lower than the conventional R404A system, especially when operated at high ambient temperature, which compels to improve the performance of the CO2 system with suitable modification. In the present work, an attempt has been made to examine the year-round performance of the basic booster system and basic booster system with the integrated modified evaporative cooling system for Ahmedabad city weather conditions (Hot and Dry climate region). The experimentally investigated and validated data are used for the modified evaporative cooling system with real-time weather data taken from the weather station installed in the institute. Subsequently, the performance of the BBS, BBS-MEC, and R404A systems have been compared in terms of COP, power consumption, and seasonal energy efficiency ratio. The results show that for BBS-MEC, SEER enhances by 28.66% and annual power consumption decreases by 22.89% as compared with BBS. In addition to that, the total environment warming impact is also found significantly lower in the case of the BBS-MEC system.

Keywords: CO2 refrigeration, booster system, evaporative cooling, R744, natural refrigerator, supermarket;


Experimental Investigation of the Performance of a Vortex Tube with Conical Control Valve

Ahmad Al-Qaisia, Jamil Al Asfar , Nabeel Abu Shaban, Areej Eniezat


Abstract: The Vortex tube (Ranque-Hilsch type/ RHVT) is a simple device used to obtain both cold and hot gas streams simultaneously from a compressed gas. The obtained cold gas is widely used in many low temperature commercial applications. In this work, the performance of the vortex tube was examined experimentally by studying the effects of inlet pressure variations, conical valve opening percentage, tube diameter and hot gas tube length on the thermal performance of the tube. Four tubes with diameters 14, 21, 25 and 32 mm with four hot exhaust gas lengths; 25, 50, 75 and 100 cm were tested experimentally and the obtained data were analyzed. It was observed that the 75 cm length of the hot side length, gives the maximum coefficient of performance for RHVT, as well as the maximum cold temperature reduction, either with or without insulation. Furthermore, the thermal performance of the RHVT was optimum for the two inner diameters; 14 and 21mm. This indicates that, when the ratio of hot side length to inner diameter (Lh/D) lies between 36 and 50, then the thermal performanmce of the RHVT is optimum and is highly recommended, which agrees with the results published in previous studies and invesitigations.

Keywords: Vortex tube, Conical control valve, experimental, performance


Numerical Analysis of Combustion Characteristics and Emission of Dual and Tri-Fuel Diesel Engine under Two Engine Speeds

Radhwan Ali , Saddam H. Raheemah,  Nabeel N. Al-Mayyahi


Abstract: The numerical simulations were performed on a single-cylinder diesel engine that operates using the direct injection technique. In this study, a two-dimensional CFD code was used in order to evaluate the emissions and combustion characteristics of a dual-fuel operation (diesel-H2, diesel-NG), tri-fuel operation (diesel-NG-H2), and normal operation of a diesel engine under different engine speeds. The percentage of diesel fuel was 100% and 50% with the remaining fraction of different mixtures of NG-H2 (100%0%, 50%50%, and 0%100%). The results showed an increase in peak temperature and pressure when gaseous fuels were added and influenced directly by H2 percentage. With diesel-H2, peak in-cylinder temperature and pressure are found. The higher temperature of combustion as a result of a rising fraction of H2 in the fuel blend proves the formation of NO, whereas increasing the fraction of diesel fuel limits the increase of NO emission, and rising percentage of H2 linearly increases NO. CO emission is mostly effected by NG fraction, but the rising fraction of H2 decreases CO closer to normal diesel operation. The mixture of 50% NG and 50% H2 produces optimum stability between combustion characteristics and emissions. However, high diesel fraction content is preferable for sustaining low combustion temperature, high thermal efficiency by avoiding excessive heat loss, reduces ignition delay, and peak in-cylinder pressure.

Keywords: Diesel engine; Dual fuel engine; NG; Hydrogen


Finite Element Formulation of Internally Balanced Blatz Ko Material Model

Ashraf Hadoush


Abstract : Material constitutive models often include internal variables in order to capture realistic mechanical effects such as viscosity. Recent work for compressible hyperelastic material is developed based on applying the argument of calculus variation to two-factor multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. The finite element formulation for this new treatment is developed, however, the implementation sheds light on a special form of constitutive model. In particular, the material model is a function of the first and third invariants of new quantities derived from the counterparts of the multiplicative decomposition. These new quantities are defined in analogy to the right Cauchy Green tensor. This work demonstrates the required treatment for a special material model that is formulated using the second and third principal invariants of these new derived quantities. Mainly, the treatment simplifies the internal balance equation that emerges from the variational treatment. This facilitates the linearization procedure of this new formulation for internally balanced compressible hyperelastic material. The present work permits the future use of more complicated internally balanced hyperelastic models

Keywords: Hyperelasticity; internal balance; finite element


Hasty Fault Diagnosis of a Rotating Machinery Hinge on Stalwart Trippy Classifier with Robust Harmonized Swan Machine

Sumit Kumar Sar, Ramesh Kumar

Abstract: Monitoring with fault diagnosis of machineries is critically important for production efficiency and plant safety in modern enterprises. The process of fault diagnosis along with extracting representative features from the vibrational signal with the existing Harmonised Swan Machine feature extraction technique resulted in high noise sensitivity, mixing mode problem and data loss. Moreover, measuring the correlation between the features with the existing fault diagnosis researches suffers from learning time limitations and memory constraints. Thus to commensurate a perfect diagnosis, in this research a Robust Harmonised Swan Machine (RHSM) with Stalwart Trippy classifier is formulated in which the iterative threshold VMD (Variational Mode Decomposition) estimation of each mode satisfying a self-consistency nature in decomposition method of RHSM is performed which in turn resolves the missing sample problem eminently independent of the signal type. Moreover, reinforcement learning uses a greedy layer wise approach empowering quick and dynamic sorts without repetition and accuracy thus measures the correlation between the features to classify the faulty features extremely thereby it takes only less memory constraint with less learning time.

Keywords : Robust Harmonized Swan Machine, Stalwart Trippy Classifier, RMS, Crest factor, Kurtosis, feature Extraction


Designing Food Packages to Attract Customers: A Systematic Approach

SaEd M. Salhieh

Abstract: Packages are considered an influential tool used to sell food products by communicating certain marketing messages to attract customers and influence their purchasing decision. This paper presents a systematic approach to design food product packages capable of delivering marketing messages intended to attract customers. The approach begins by identifying the main marketing messages that need to be communicated to customers. Next, perceptual maps relating customers preferences toward existing or new package designs are constructed to assess the package's effectiveness in delivering the marketing messages. After that, package design characteristics capable of embodying the marketing messages are identified and used as design factors within a conjoint analysis study to design new packages. The applicability of the approach was tested by designing new flavored milk packages. The results of the study showed that the approach allowed package designers to systemize their analysis of the effectiveness of food package designs in delivering the intended marketing messages, and to identify main design factors to be considered when designing a new package, and to use these design factors to develop package designs capable of attracting customers.

Keywords: food package design, new product development, package marketing messages, flavored milk, willingness to buy


Adaptive Backstepping Position Controller for PMSM Drive with Uncertainties of Mechanical Parameters

Salam Mahmoud, Mohammad Merei

Abstract: The permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) are widely used in various industrial applications because of their numerous advantages. However, the performance of conventional controllers (PID) is insufficient in PMSM nonlinear drive systems, which requires high performance. In this paper, we investigate the possible enhancements in performance by using an adaptive backstepping position controller that is designed based on the Lyapunov stability theory. The backstepping technique has been successfully applied for nonlinear systems with external disturbances. The results of the simulation indicate an improved performance due to the designed controller ability to track the position reference signal precisely unlike the conventional controller. The proposed adaptive backstepping controller has improved performance and effectiveness of the PMSM drive systems.

Keywords: Lyapunov stability theory, adaptive backstepping position controller, the permanent magnet synchronous motor(PMSM)


Design of a Vendor Managed Inventory Model for Impulse Purchase Products in a Two-level Supply Chain

David Garca , Daniel Palencia, Cristian Solano, Adel Mendoza

Abstract: Although there are multiple methodologies to carry out collaborative practices of inventory management, none are set up for impulse purchase products. This is a disadvantage because with the opening of new markets and the proliferation of consumer culture, the economic importance of buying products on impulse always remains relevant. In this paper, a Vendor Managed Inventory model was designed based on the direct participation of a vendor and a buyer (two-level supply chain), in order to agree on the procurement operations of a portfolio of impulse purchase products. For this proposal, a mathematical model based on classical optimization was designed to minimize inventory costs. Subsequently, a case study was conducted comparing the economic impact of the model with respect to a traditional supply agreement in a non-cooperative scenario. The results reflected positive economic effects in the implementation of the model related to the economies of scale to exploit fixed costs present in the agreement. Additionally, the conditions under which the implementation of this model grants individual and global benefits to the participating companies were validated.

Keywords: Vendor Managed Inventory, Supply chain management, Classical optimization, Impulse purchase products, Logistics







 Contents of Number 3

Research on the Effect of Rotation Speed on the Meshing Characteristics of Elliptical Cylindrical Gears

Changbin Dong , Yongping Liu, Xingwen Fu, Chenchen Dou, Yuxin Yin


Abstract: Aiming at the elliptical cylinder gear pair in the reversing device of the new drum pumping unit, the dynamic meshing process of tooth was simulated by LS-PREPOST software. The distribution law of effective plastic strain, effective stress, tooth surface pressure, tooth surface displacement and meshing force in the direction of tooth lines and tooth profiles under different rotational speeds were obtained. The results show that the effective plastic strain, the effective stress and the surface pressure in the tooth lines direction will decrease as the center position of the elliptical contact area of the tooth surface expands to both sides. The effective plastic strain, the effective stress and the surface pressure in the tooth profiles direction will increase with the increase of the rotational speed, and the rotational speed will affect the changing period of the tooth surface displacement and the meshing force. The research results can provide theoretical basis and certain guiding significance for the dynamic design, meshing analysis, modification and engineering application of non-cylindrical gears.

Keywords: Elliptical cylindrical gear; Tooth contact analysis; Effective plastic strain; Effective stress; Contact characteristics;


Systematic Approach for Selecting a Cleaning Method to Solar Panels Based on the Preference Selection Index Approach

Mohammed Said Obeidat, Esraa Mohammad Al Abed Alhalim, Bilal Raif Melhim


Abstract: Policymakers have become eager to move towards sustainability recently due to the growing costs of electricity and concerns about the environment. Environment friendly and economical energy sources, such as solar power, are being introduced at increasing rates. Photovoltaic (PV) panels are considered an important method of harnessing solar power. Although solar energy is one of the most efficient renewable and sustainable sources of energy, the accumulation of dust and debris on even one panel in a PV array reduces the efficiency of energy generation, thus highlighting the need to keep the surfaces of PV panels clean. Several methods can be used to clean PV panels, such as Heliotex technology, electrostatic cleaning, the use of self-cleaning glass, automatic cleaning and manual cleaning. The Preference Selection Index (PSI) multi-criteria decision-making approach is used in this study to compare these cleaning methods. Data were collected via a survey of solar energy experts in Jordan to enable a comparison of these cleaning methods, and several attributes were considered. After the initial PSI analysis, a follow-up sensitivity analysis was conducted that involved removing the cost attributes. The results showed that the best method was manual cleaning. The results of the sensitivity analysis confirmed that manual cleaning is the method most often preferred by experts.

Keywords: Energy; Cleaning; PV Panel; Multi-criteria Decision Making; Preference Selection Index


The Antimicrobial Effect of UV-Activated Titanium Dioxide Material Deposited on Dental Implants

Abdul Hai Alami, M Adel Moufti, Mohammad Hamad, Kamilia Aokal, Abdullah Abu Hawili, Rawand Naji, Mohammad Faraj


Abstract: This work presents a pilot study on the photoelectric effect of anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2) deposited on grade 4 titanium discs on their antimicrobial properties. The focus will be especially directed towards dental implants applications. This study details specimen preparation and microstructural characterization by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy to ensure a homogenous coverage of the TiO2 material on the discs. The samples were further tested to highlight the photoelectric response of titanium dioxide to ultraviolet radiation in the form of electrical current within the discs. Six discs (three bare Ti, and three coated with TiO2) were seeded with a 5 l of Escherichia coli culture. One disc of each group was subjected to the same UV light source used for the opto-electrical analysis for 0, 1 or 5 minutes. Bacteria on the discs were then harvested and incubated to examine number of viable cells. The obtained electrical properties confirmed that the surface-coating provides simultaneous oxidation-reduction driven reactions under the photoinduced catalytic activity. This activity proves the benefits of incorporating a TiO2 layer in mitigating the number of active E-Coli bacteria in a microbial setup by as much as 21% after 5 minutes of UV exposure. This photoelectrical effect has a profound impact on the development of an in-situ oral disinfectant material deposited on titanium-based dental implants. It is expected that the approach will promote facile antimicrobial treatment for patients that is non-invasive and at the same time very effective.

Keywords: Energy; titanium dioxide; photoelectric response; dental implants; surface modification; E-coli; anti-microbial; peri-implantitis


Value Stream Mapping with Simulation to Optimize Stock Levels: Case Study

Yunus Emre MIDILLI, Birol ELEVLI


Abstract : Value stream mapping (VSM) is a simple tool used to identify the waste present within the processes by mapping the current state. The future state is suggested to eliminate the waste. However, transition from current state to future state has always been a challenge in real life applications. One of the biggest challenge is to determine where to establish continuous flow and controlled stock levels due to numerous reasons, such as probabilistic characteristics of demand, unexpected behaviors, complexity etc. In this context, simulation is used to assess lean improvements, to analyze the system under scenarios based on suggested improvements and to optimize an objective, subject to constraints or requirements. In this paper, a simulation-based optimization approach is proposed to determine optimum stock levels in lean manufacturing, and a case study was carried out for a filter manufacturing department of a tobacco company. The results showed that stock level could be reduced by 50% while reducing the number of machines.

Keywords: VSM ; Simulation ; Optimization ; Lean ; Stock level;


Analytical and Graphical Optimal Synthesis of Crank-Rocker Four Bar Mechanisms for Achieving Targeted Transmission Angle Deviations

Sabry El-Shakery, Rokaya Ramadan, Khaled Khader

Abstract: This paper presents a detailed methodology to optimally synthesize links' lengths of planar Crank-Rocker (C-R) mechanism to achieve a targeted design with definite transmission angle deviation. Analytical and graphical proposed methodologies are applied to three different case studies; each satisfies a definite case (task). The analytical methodology is based on deducing six design equations with equality constraints, which represent relations between the desired case conditions and the mechanism's lengths. Meanwhile, deflection and transmission angles; the time ratio limits or output angular stroke can be easily obtained. Furthermore, optimal synthesized results can fulfil any definite case requirements which can be represented using the corresponding six deduced equations. The optimal charts are presented to quickly obtain the optimal (C-R) mechanism's lengths, which are achieving the targeted transmission angles deviations. Consequently, the designers can easily select optimal synthesized crank-rocker mechanisms' lengths, instead of time consuming of optimization calculations. Also, this paper presented a fast-graphical methodology to directly obtain an optimal synthesized (C-R) mechanism's lengths. This methodology requires only identifying the design case related to the chosen mechanism class and the desired transmission angle deviations through giving the minimum and maximum transmission angles (γmin and γmax). Moreover, a direct relation between the mini-max transmission angle deviations, the (C-R) mechanisms classes and the performance parameters can be presented. Hence, this facilitates the specialists' mission in designing (C-R) mechanisms for special uses as driving conveying, screening and shaking mechanisms.

Keywords : Synthesis, Optimization, Crank-rocker mechanism, Transmission angle, Mechanism Design


Review of Experimental and Finite Element Analyses of Spot Weld Failures in Automotive Metal Joints

Aravinthan Arumugam, Alokesh Pramanik

Abstract: The spot weld failure analysis using experimental and numerical finite element analysis methods has been reviewed. The spot weld strength is governed by the welding parameters, sheet metal thicknesses and the loading conditions. Spot weld fails either by pull-out failure (PF) mode or interfacial failure (IF) mode. The spot weld failure modes depend on the diameter of weld and the loading types. Most reported experimental spot weld failure analyses were based on industrial standard test samples under quasi static loading. Limited work on combined loading on dissimilar metal joints with different thicknesses was found in the review. The review further observed that weld bonded joints have better fatigue life compared to spot welded joints. Extensive work has been proposed in this review on this type of hybrid joints as current research showed limited investigation in this area. In the finite element analysis of spot weld failures, current researches mostly investigated single spot weld failures using the standard tests under quasi static loading. The review proposed further study of spot weld failure of multiple spot welds under fatigue loading for dissimilar joints and hybrid joints. Finally, a hybrid system has been proposed to relate the experimental and computational weld failure analyses for spot weld optimization.

Keywords: spot weld; failure mode; diameter; strength; weld joint; lap-shear; coach -peel; cross-tension; FEA; quasi-static; fatigue


Experimental and Numerical Study of Heat Transfer and Tensile Strength of Engineered Porous Fins to Estimate the Best Porosity

Ali Heydari, Mehrdad Mesgarpour, Mohammad Reza Gharib

Abstract: In porous media, increasing porosity improves heat transfer rate and pressure drop across the fluid flow while decreasing strength of the body. Therefore, determining the optimum porosity is a serious challenge in balancing these two functional components of porous environments. In this research, an experimental study and numerical modeling of heat transfer and mechanical strength of engineered porous fin have been performed. In this regard, the model to create the porous medium is selected as a network of connected spheres. In order to estimate the best porosity, the effect of the porosity variation in the allowed range is investigated to achieve the best heat transfer and tensile strength simultaneously for three different materials of copper, aluminum and brass. The results show that the tensile strength and heat transfer optimized simultaneously for a specific porosity for each material

Keywords: Fins; heat transfer; porous media; tensile strength; porosity


Potential Utilization of Iraqi Associated Petroleum Gas as Fuel for SI Engines

Jehad A. A. Yamin, Eiman Ali Eh Sheet

Abstract: An engine modelling study was conducted to investigate the relative change in performance and emissions of a 4-stroke, spark-ignition engine using Iraqi Associated Petroleum Gas as fuel. The research was done using a well-verified simulation software Diesel-RK. The data available for Ricardo E6/T variable compression ratio spark-ignition engine was used to conduct this study. The performance of the engine using associated petroleum gas was compared with those for gasoline, natural gas, and the average properties of the natural gas in Europe. The performance parameters studied were engine power, thermal efficiency, oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide levels. The study showed that the Iraqi associated petroleum gas could not be used as is if the aim is to cut down pollution. The main advantage is the absence of sulfur in the gas, which is present in the gasoline used in Iraq. There is a significant rise in NOx levels, a reduction in UHC, and also a rise in CO levels when using APG fuel. Further, there is an average reduction in engine power of about 10% with the associated gas compared with gasoline. At the same time, the only gain is the reduction in SFC and improvement in thermal efficiency with the new fuel.

Keywords: Associated gas, SI engine, Methane gas, Engine emissions, Natural gas


 Contents of Number 4

MFL Based Prototype and Experimental Work for Detection of Defects in Cables of Bridge Structures

Emad Abdelsalam, Feras Kafiah, Sanad Kiswani, Dana Ibrahima, Al Ghorbanpoor


Abstract: This work offers experimental work and a prototype device based on the Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) method to inspect and detect corrosion in the cables of cable-stayed bridges. The developed prototype was constructed from two flat permanent magnets to provide a uniform magnetic field. A Hall-effect assembly was designed and developed. The assembly was placed between the two magnets in order to detect magnetic field changes due to defects inside the cable. Experimental work and tests were conducted on a constructed real cable, with various size of fabricated defect sizes. The results show that the MFL method is capable of detecting loss of section due to corrosion defects of varying sizes. Considerable success has been achieved in detecting steel defects from a single broken wire to seven broken wires (full strand fracture), particularly at the surface of the steel (about 3.8 cm depth from the surface of the cable). However, limited success has been achieved in detecting defects at the center of the steel cable, limited to detecting the seven broken wires defect only.

Keywords: ENDE; Cable-Stayed Bridges; MFL; Corrosion;


A Technical and Economic Study of a Photovoltaicphase Change Material (PV-PCM) System in Jordan

Salem Nijmeh, Bashar Hammad, Mohammad Al-Abed, Riad Bani-Khalid


Abstract: This work presents a technical and economic evaluation of the application of phase change material (PCM) in the cooling and thermal regulation of photovoltaic (PV) panels. The technical study is performed based on experimental tests carried out on two identical 3.99 kWp PV systems for one full year at the Hashemite University, Jordan. The backside of the first system was integrated with BioPCM. It is a safe, environmentally friendly, and economically sustainable product that is typically employed in the building industry to save energy in HVAC. This PCM has the potential to answer the many concerns associated with the traditional PCMs. The second PV system is used as a reference for performance comparison purposes. The actual performance results show there is an increase of 3.4% in the annual power production due to the application of BioPCM. The annual conversion efficiency is 12.50% for the PV/BioPCM system, while it is 12.08% for the reference PV system. The economic study investigates the viability of the inclusion of PCM in terms of the payback period, net present value, and internal rate of return. These parameters indicate that the PCM investment is economically unattractive at present.

Keywords: photovoltaic systems; phase change material; experimental study; technical evaluation; economic feasibility


Development of A New Technique for Modeling and Optimizing Manufacturing Errors for Cn Machine Tools

Messaoud Farouk, Rahou Mohamed, Sebaa Fethi


Abstract: This paper presents a new technique for optimizing manufacturing tolerances. This technique is based on the combination of two methods, the goal programing method and the genetic algorithm. Firstly, cubic splines interpolation is used to describe machining errors by a set of cubic polynomials. Tool path error, table motion error and tool wear error are considered in this study. Then, based on the goal programming method, the optimization problem is established. In order to avoid weighting effects in the objective functions, we used a genetic Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA) for the resolution of the objective programming problems. A description of optimization processes based on NSGA is presented, and some of the genetic operators are explained. As a result, zero percent rejection of machining parts are obtained by this method. In this study, only three type of machining errors are considered.

Keywords: Manufacturing tolerances, Goal programming, Machining errors, Cubic spline interpolation, Genetic algorithm.


Thermal Analysis of a Combined Cycle Power Plant under Varying Operating Conditions

 Mustafa Al-Qudah, Ahmad Sakhrieh, Ali Almarzouq, Ahmad Al-Omari


Abstract : Combined Cycle Power Plants are preferred for their high efficiency and low pollutant emissions. Combined cycle power plants are becoming increasingly prevalent in the Jordanian electric market place. The output of CCPPs in operation in Jordan counts 2,180 MW which represents 55% out of total installed generation capacity. In this work, the effect of Turbine Inlet Temperature on the net output work and thermal efficiency of the combined cycle are investigated. The power output and thermal efficiency are increasing with increasing Turbine Inlet Temperature. The performance of the power plant was analyzed for two types of fuels; natural gas and fuel oil with 100% and 75% load factors. It was found that Al-Qatrana Power Plant has a maximum efficiency of 43.25% when operated with 100% NG. This produces 374.62 MW total output power. Increasing Turbine Inlet Temperature increased the overall thermal efficiency to 43.69% and the total output power to 378.51MW.

Keywords: CCPP, power plant, TIT;


In-situ Hybridization of Waste Palm Oil: A Physicochemical, Thermal, and Spectroscopic Analysis

Josiah Pelemo, Omojola Awogbemi , Freddie Inambao, Emmanuel I. Onuh

Abstract: Hybridization is one of the techniques for unearthing novel feedstock and diversifying the existing waste cooking oil feedstock stream. In the present research, in-situ hybridization was carried out on waste palm oil (WPO) samples obtained from different sources. The aim of this current study is to investigate the effect of hybridization on the physicochemical properties, thermal degradation, and spectroscopic on both the WPO and hybridized samples. Two WPO samples were mixed in different ratio and subjected to property determination and characterization. Hybridization was found to increase the iodine value, and reduce the density, kinematic viscosity, and saponification values but does not affect the acid value, cetane index and higher heating values of the samples. All the samples witnessed one stage of thermal decomposition; samples A, B, C, D, and E experienced 13 %, 11 %, 10 %, 8 %, and 3 % weight loss respectively between 320 C and 470 C. The peak of derivative weight percentage of -0.06 %m-1 was observed at 433 C, -0.05 %m-1 at 430 C, -0.11 %m-1 at 432 C, -0.09 %m-1 at 422 C, and -0.06 %m-1 at 430 C for samples A, B, C, D, and E respectively. The infrared spectrum curves revealed that the peculiar peaks at 1226 cm-1, 1363 cm-1, and 1378 cm-1 found in the parent samples A and B disappeared in the spectrum curves of hybridized samples C, D, and E. The outcome of this investigation shows that hybridization is a viable technique for improving the quality of existing feedstock as well as creating novel high-quality feedstock for biodiesel generation.

Keywords : Characterization, feedstock, in-situ hybridization, waste palm oil


Designing Food Packages to Attract Customers: A Systematic Approach

Olurotimi Akintunde Dahunsi, Olatunji Oladimeji Ojo, Ikeoluwa Ogedengbe, Omeiza Bayode Maliki

Abstract: The lack of electrical power supply in African homes has led to a quantum proliferation and usage of portable backup power alternatives like generators. The ceaseless running of generators makes most homes to overshoot the recommended service life (approximately 150 hours) and maximum continuous runtime (4 - 6 hours) of generators in the earliest possible time. Burnout of piston and its eventual impairment consequently ensue, and this gives room for endless replacements of piston and incessant piston wastes. To manage piston waste, and to create a sustainable piston market, the outlook of reproducing piston from its wastes is engineered. As a result, this work examines the conceptual permanent mould design, thermal analysis and fabrication of the designed mould, and casting of 950 Watts generators piston. The mechanical and microstructural properties of the as-cast pistons were correlated with the properties of LM13. Defect-free pistons were produced while the re-melting process slightly altered the composition of the as-cast alloy as compared to that of LM13.

Keywords: Permanent Mould, Mould Design, Piston, Casting, Mechanical properties; Aluminum alloy


Adaptive Disturbance Estimation and Compensation for Delta Robots

Iyad Hashlamon

Abstract: This paper introduces an adaptive disturbance estimation and compensation approach for delta parallel robots using three methods. The first method is based on the adaptive Kalman filter (AKF), the second method uses the Low pass filtered robot dynamic model (LFDM) while the third method is acceleration measurement based (AMB) method which utilizes the measured moving platform acceleration directly into the robot dynamical model. The considered disturbance is joint friction, uncertainty and unmodeled dynamics, their effects are represented as lumped disturbance torque vector. The estimation performance is evaluated using the mean square error (MSE) as a performance measure. To control the robot, the nonlinear robot model is linearized using feedback linearization through the estimated disturbance which is adaptively scaled using an adaptive tuning gain to overcome the limitations of the transient response of the estimated disturbance. The tuning is governed by a simple developed sliding surface depending on the error between the desired and actual joint angles. The tuned disturbance is added directly to the classical proportionalderivative (PD) controller output control signal for disturbance compensation and trajectory tracking. Based on the results, a comparison among the three methods is studied. The comparison shows that the AKF method is the most accurate that tracks the desired trajectory in the presence of disturbance and noise. The other methods are not recommended.

Keywords: Delta robot, adaptive Kalman filter, disturbance estimation, adaptive control


Design of a Screw Conveyor for Transporting and Cooling Plantain Flour in a Process Plant

JMichael Kanisuru Adeyeri, Sesan Peter Ayodeji, Emmanuel Olatunji Outomilola, Janet Omoyeni Bako

Abstract: This paper discusses the design, simulation and functional performance evaluation of an inclined screw conveyor with integrated system for cooling while conveying pulverized pulps from pulverizing unit to packaging unit of a plant that processes unripe plantain into flour. Hygiene, ergonomics, conveyance distance and height, thermal and mechanical properties of the materials selected, ease of fabrication and production cost were carefully considered. Model for the equipment was developed using SolidWorks application software, which was followed by design analysis of its components. Simulation of the developed model was done using ANSYS, SolidWorks and Autodesk Inventor application software packages, in order to predict the performance of its components and to ascertain its functionality before fabrication. The simulation results showed that the design of the equipment is adequate and safe for fabrication. The equipment was then fabricated and assembled using appropriate manufacturing techniques. The total fabrication cost is put at One Thousand, Three Hundred and Thirty dollars ($1,330) only. Its functional performance was evaluated; the throughput and thermal efficiencies obtained were 96.1% and 85.3% respectively. It can be said that the equipment has the capacity to serve its primary purpose as it was able to convey and cool the material poured into it from 82.20C to 29.20C

Keywords: Screw Conveyor Design, Plantain Flour Cooling, Simulation, Evaluation, Process Plant







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